The element14 BeagleBone Black Industrial (BBONE-BLACK-IND-4G) is a low cost, high-expansion focused BeagleBoard using a low cost industrial temperature grade Sitara™ AM3358 ARM® Cortex™-A8 processor from Texas Instruments. BBONE-BLACK-IND-4G ships with the Debian Linux distribution preinstalled on the onboard FLASH, ready to start evaluation and development.
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We use a special library called adafruit_blinka (named after Blinka, the CircuitPython mascot) to provide the layer that translates the CircuitPython hardware API to whatever library the Linux board provides.
For example, on Raspberry Pi we use the python RPi.GPIO library. For any I2C interfacing we'll use ioctl messages to the /dev/i2c device. For SPI we'll use the spidev python library, etc. These details don't matter so much because they all happen underneath the adafruit_blinka layer.